The Nine Old Men - Vestibular (2024)

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Paulo Lemos 03/07/2024

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TheNineOldMenLearnfromthemenwhochangedanimationforever.WaltDisney’s team of core animators,who he affectionately called his “NineOldMen,”were known for creating Disney’s most famous works, as well as refining the 12 basicprinciplesofanimation.FollowmasteranimatorandDisneylegendAndreasDejaashetakesyouthroughthemindsandworksofthesenotableanimators.AnapprenticetotheNineOldMenhimself,Dejagivesspecialattentiontoeachanimatorandprovidesathoughtfulanalysisoftheirtechniques,whichincludefiguredrawing,acting,storystructure,andexecution.Thein-depthanalysisofeachanimator’sworkwillallowyoutorefineyourapproachtocharacteranimation.RaresequentialdrawingsfromtheWaltDisneyAnimationResearchLibraryalsogive you unprecedented access and insight into the most creative minds that changed thecourseofanimation.• Instruction and analysis on the works of each of the Nine Old Men broaden yourcreativechoicesandapproachestocharacteranimation.•Originaldrawings,somenever-before-seenbythepublic,areexploredindepth,givingyoubehind-the-scenesaccessintoDisneyanimationhistory.•Gainfirst-handinsightintothefoundationoftimelesscharactersandscenesfromsomeofDisney’smostmemorablefeatureandshortfilms.AndreasDejawastenyearsoldwhenhefirstappliedforajobasaDisneyanimator.Thestudiowrote back toDeja telling him that they had no openings, butwere always on thelookoutfornewtalent.Attheageof20,heappliedagainandwasaccepted.ThislaunchedalongandsuccessfulcareerwithDisney.Dejahaslefthismarkonsomeofthemostmemorableand successfulDisney animated features and shorts.His earlywork includes animation andcharacterdesign forTheGreatMouseDetective,Oliver&Company,andWhoFramedRogerRabbit. In addition, he is known for his animation of some of Disney’s most evil villains:Gaston,Jafar,andScar.ThelistofmemorablecharacterscontinueswithKingTriton,MickeyMouse,Hercules,Lilo,Goofy,Tigger,MamaOdie,andJuju.In2006,atthe35thAnnieAwards,Deja was awarded the Winsor McCay Award for outstanding contribution to the art ofanimation.In2015,hewasnamedaDisneyLegendbytheWaltDisneyCompany.Presently,Dejaisworkingonhisownindependentanimatedshortfilmsandisactivelyinvolvedinhisanimation-relatedblog,DejaView.TheNineOldMenLESSONS,TECHNIQUES,ANDINSPIRATIONFROMDISNEY’SGREATANIMATORSAndreasDejaCRCPressTaylor&FrancisGroup6000BrokenSoundParkwayNW,Suite300BocaRaton,FL33487-2742©2016Taylor&FrancisCRCPressisanimprintoftheTaylor&FrancisGroup,aninformabusinessThisbookcontainsinformationobtainedfromauthenticandhighlyregardedsources.Reasonableeffortshavebeenmadetopublishreliabledataandinformation,buttheauthorandpublishercannotassumeresponsibilityforthevalidityofallmaterialsortheconsequencesoftheiruse.Theauthorsandpublishershaveattemptedtotracethecopyrightholdersofallmaterialreproducedinthispublicationandapologizetocopyrightholdersifpermissiontopublishinthisformhasnotbeenobtained.Ifanycopyrightmaterialhasnotbeenacknowledgedpleasewriteandletusknowsowemayrectifyinanyfuturereprint.ExceptaspermittedunderU.S.CopyrightLaw,nopartofthisbookmaybereprinted,reproduced,transmitted,orutilizedinanyformbyanyelectronic,mechanical,orothermeans,nowknownorhereafterinvented,includingphotocopying,microfilming,andrecording,orinanyinformationstorageorretrievalsystem,withoutwrittenpermissionfromthepublishers.Forpermissiontophotocopyorusematerialelectronicallyfromthiswork,pleaseaccesswww.copyright.com(http://www.copyright.com/)orcontacttheCopyrightClearanceCenter,Inc.(CCC),222RosewoodDrive,Danvers,MA01923,978-750-8400.CCCisanot-for-profitorganizationthatprovideslicensesandregistrationforavarietyofusers.FororganizationsthathavebeengrantedaphotocopylicensebytheCCC,aseparatesystemofpaymenthasbeenarranged.TrademarkNotice:Productorcorporatenamesmaybetrademarksorregisteredtrademarks,andareusedonlyforidentificationandexplanationwithoutintenttoinfringe.LibraryofCongressCataloginginPublicationDataDeja,Andreas,1957–Thenineoldmen:lessons,techniques,andinspirationfromDisney’sgreatanimators/AndreasDeja.pagescm1.Animation(Cinematography)—Miscellanea.2.Animators—UnitedStates.3.Animatedfilms—UnitedStates—History—20thcentury.4.WaltDisneyProductions—History—20thcentury.I.Title.TR897.5.D452015777’.7—dc232015010907ISBN:978-0-415-84335-5(hbk)ISBN:978-0-203-75661-4(ebk)DesignedandtypesetbyAlexLazarou(alexlazarou@aol.com)VisittheTaylor&FrancisWebsiteathttp://www.taylorandfrancis.comandtheCRCPressWebsiteathttp://www.crcpress.comhttp://www.copyright.comhttp://http://www.copyright.com/http://www.taylorandfrancis.comhttp://www.crcpress.comIdedicatethisbooktoEricLarson,whosawmypotentialasananimatorwhenIwasstillanartstudent,andeventuallyhiredmetojoinWaltDisneyProductions’AnimationDepartment.CONTENTSAcknowledgmentsTheAuthorPrefaceLesClarkWolfgangReithermanEricLarsonWardKimballMiltKahlFrankThomasOllieFohnstonJohnLounsberyMarcDavisGlossaryIndexACKNOWLEDGMENTSIexpressmydeepgratitudetoeverybody,whosharedmyenthusiasmforthisbookprojectfromdayone.Theyare:•MyeditorsfromFocalPress.LaurenMattos,whoaskedmeinthefirstplacewhetherIwasinterested in sharing my knowledge in the art of Disney’s Nine Old Men, and CaitlinMurphy,whopatientlyoversawthebulkofthisbook’sproduction.BothLaurenandCaitlingaveme the kind ofwarm guidance thatwas verymuch appreciated by this first time-writer.• Members of Disney’s fabulous Animation Research Library (ARL). Mary Walsh, themanagingdirector,who supported the project bydelegating a number of knowledgeablestaffmemberstohelpresearchendlessvisualmaterials.•ResearchmanagerFoxCarneypatientlystoodbymeduringmylongselectionprocessandprovidedmewithnumerousscansofbeautifulartworkIdidn’tevenknowstillexisted.• ResearchersJackieVasquez,AnnHansen,andDougEngella,allsearchedmethodicallyforanimationdrawingsthatbestcomplementedmywritings.•EricBoydconductedsometastefulclean-upandpreppingofthefiles.• Michael Pucher, Mathieu Fretschel, and Idris Erba from the Image Capture Teamphotographedsomeartfrommypersonalcollectionofanimationart.• Last not least Roger Viloria, who helpedme to select and scan original drawings I hadaccumulatedovertheyears.During thewholeprocessofwritingandgatheringgorgeousmaterial for thisbook I foundmyself ina stateofutterdelightandkept thinking that there really isnobetter time spentthanresearchingthemasterworksofWaltDisney’sincomparableanimators.THEAUTHORAndreasDejafirstappliedforajobasaDisneyanimatorattheageoften.BorninPolandand raised in Germany, he remembers writing to the studio immediately after seeing TheJungleBook. “I’d never seen aDisney feature before,” he recalls. “Itwas one of those keyexperiencesbecauseIjustcouldn’tbelievewhatI’dseen.Allthosedrawingsmoving,thinking,andactingsoreal.”PhotobyRogerViloriaThe studio wrote back to Deja explaining that there were no openings but they werealwaysonthelookoutfornewtalent.Thisofferedhimtheencouragementheneededandthemotivationtoworkhardtowardsthatgoal.Attheageof20,aftercompletinghisstudies,heappliedagainandthistimehewasaccepted.Working with Eric Larson, one of Disney’s legendary “Nine Old Men,” Deja completedseveral testsandwenton todoearlycharacterdesign,costumeresearch,andanimation forTheBlackCauldron(1985).HisnextassignmentwasonTheGreatMouseDetective(1986),forwhichheanimated themousequeenandher robotic twin.Dejahelpeddesignmanyof thecharacters forOliver&Company (1988) anddid some animationbefore spending a year inLondonasaleadanimatoronWhoFramedRogerRabbit(1988),underthedirectionofRichardWilliams.OnThe Little Mermaid (1989), Deja oversaw the animation of King Triton, a powerfulfigure that requiredexpert skills indraftsmanshipandactingability. ForDisney’sAcademyAward-winninganimatedmusicalBeautyandtheBeast (1991),heservedas thesupervisinganimator for the first of his many Disney villains, the very pompous and narrow-mindedGaston.DejacontinuedtoexplorehisdarkersidebydesigningandanimatingtheevilvizierJafarforDisney’sanimatedmusicalhitAladdin (1992).Hewentontosupervisetheanimationofthepower-hungryvillain,Scar,inTheLionKing(1994),whichquicklyearnedaplaceasoneoftheindustry’sbiggestfilmsofalltime.For his next assignment, Deja relocated to Disney’s Paris animation facility for a stintoverseeingtheanimationofMickeyMouseinRunawayBrain,thestudio’sfirstnewMickeyshortsince1953andanOscarnominee in1996 forBestAnimatedShort.Following that,hereturned to Burbank, where he took on the challenging assignment of bringing life andpersonalitytothetitleheroinDisney’s35thfull-lengthanimatedfeature,Hercules(1997).Hewent on to design and supervise the animation for the charming and unpredictable littleHawaiiangirlLiloinLilo&Stitch (2002),whichhasbeenhailedasoneof thestudio’smostentertainingandimaginativefeatures.DejacontributedanimationforseveralcharactersinDisney’slive-action/animatedmusicalEnchanted (2007), and served as one of the supervising animators on Goofy’s big-screenreturn in the short film,How toHookUpYourHomeTheater (2007).Hewas a supervisinganimator onDisney’s hand-drawn animated featureThe Princess and the Frog, released in2009.HealsosupervisedtheanimationofTiggerforanewWinniethePoohfeature,whichwasreleasedtheatricallyin2011.In 2007, hewas honoredwith theWinsorMcKayAward fromASIFA (the InternationalAnimatedFilmAssociation).Currently,AndreasDejaisworkingonhisownindependentanimatedshortfilms.Healsocontributesregularlyanimation-relatedmaterialonhisblogDejaView.PREFACEOne day in the late 1970s I discussed Disney animation with my life-drawing teacher.“AnybodycanlearnhowtoanimatelikeDisney,”heclaimed.“It’salltechnique,butnoart.”Iwas shocked! Thismanwas a terrific teacher and an artist in his own right. I doubted hisjudgment quietly, having already spent endless hours studying the fluid motion of DisneyanimationwiththehelpofSuper-8filmclips.Icouldnotimaginethatanybodycouldlearntoanimatelikethisbypickingupafewsimpletricks.Itseemedtomethatinordertocreatelifethroughdrawings,anartisthadtobecomeveryinvolvedandcommitted.Myartschooldidn’tofferanyanimationclasses,whichmeantifIwantedtopursueafuturecareer in animation, a self-taught method would be the only option. After giving myselfassignmentslikewalkcyclesandotherpenciltests,IfoundoutthatDisneyStudioshadstartedatrainingprogramfornewtalentjoiningtheanimationdepartment.ItturnedoutthatveterananimatorEricLarsonworkedwithnewcomersondevelopingtheircrafttoeventuallybecomefullyfledgedanimators.Aboutoneyearlater, inAugust1980,Iappliedfortheprogramandwasluckyenoughtogetaccepted.OneofthethingsIrememberisEricgoingovermydrawingsfromasceneIwastryingtoanimate.LookingovertheshoulderofoneofDisney’sgreatanimatorsandwatchinghimashestrengthenedmyposesandtimingwasintimidatingandthrillingatthesametime.When viewing my corrected scene, I couldn’t believe my eyes. Eric’s input added puremagic; thecharacter’sactionsbecamemoreclearandbelievable.Whatstartedoutasmessygraphicmotion,nowseemedtoshowsignsoflife.ItwasEricwhofirstintroducedmetotwootherDisneyanimators,FrankThomasandOllieJohnston,whowereinthemidstofwritingtheirfirstbookonDisneyanimation,TheIllusionof Life. Conversations with these artists were fascinating because, after all, they had beeninvolvedwithalmostallofDisney’sanimatedfilms.Thesemoviesshapedmychildhoodandmade me wonder, how on earth this level of excellence was achieved. Now I had theopportunitytoaskendlessquestionsabouttheartofcharacteranimation.WhenIwasstillinGermany,theterm“Disney’sNineOldMen”hadbeenfamiliartome;Iknew thenamesof this elitegroupof animators frombooksandmagazinearticles.What Iwasn’t aware of was the fact that two of them had already passed away when I startedworkingforthestudio.JohnLounsberyandLesClarkwerenolongeralive,butIwasluckytogettoknowandbecomefriendswithsevenofthenine,includingEricLarson,FrankThomas,andOllieJohnston.WoolieReithermanstillworkedat thestudioduringtheearly1980s,developingideasfornewprojects.MarcDavishadretired,but livedcloseby,andheandhiswifeAliceenjoyedinteractingwith a new generation of animators.Ward Kimball lectured occasionally at thestudio and was always up for a lunch date. Milt Kahl had moved to San Francisco afterspendingmorethan40yearsasananimatoratDisney.Ivisitedhimonceortwiceayearand,despitehisroughreputation,foundhimtobegenerouswithhistimeandstimulatingtotalkto.IwasluckytobeabletojoinDisneyatatimewhensomanymasteranimatorswerestillaliveand,asitturnedout,veryapproachable.Everyconversationwitheachofthemleftmeincrediblyinspiredandcompelledtostudytheirworkingreaterdetail.Atthattimethestudiokept all of the animated, hand-drawn scenes ever done in a makeshift archive called theMorgue,whichwasplacedinthebasem*ntoftheInkandPaintDepartment.Newcomerslikemyselfwereencouragedtostudythismaterialupcloseandlearnfromit.Andwhataschoolitwas!Whether it wasMedusa pulling off her false eyelashes, Bambi chasing a butterfly, orBaloodancingwithMowgli,flippingthosescenesleftmewithafeelingofeitherfrustration—Iamnevergoingtobeasgoodasthis—orutterelation—lookhowincrediblethismediumcanbe!InthisbookItrytoshareanecdotesandreflectionsbytheseincredibleartists—asrelatedtome—andpresentsomeoftheirbrilliantwork.My art teacherwaswrong;Disney animation is somuchmore than technique.Creatingpersonalities on the screen throughdrawings is extremelydifficult andonly succeeds if theanimator finds a way to express him- or herself personally. As Marc Davis said, it is theultimateartform,involvingdrawing,acting,music,dancing,andpainting,allcombinedintoonemedium.TheNineOldMenLesClarkWhenLesClarkretiredfromtheanimationindustryin1975hehadworkedforWaltDisneyProductionsforalmosthalfacentury.HefirstmetWaltDisneyin1925atthecandystorehewasworkingforpart-time,asClarkwasstillattendinghighschool.Acoupleofyears later,withno formalart trainingbutanavid interest in thenewmediumofanimation,heaskedWaltforajob.His portfolio consisted only of a few redrawn illustrations from the popular magazineCollegeHumor, butDisney saw something in his lively linework, and so Leswas hired in1927.Hespenthisfirstyearatthestudioasacameraoperator.Clarkalsolearnedthecraftofinking the animators’ drawings on celluloid sheets, so-called cels, before they werephotographed on a painted background under the camera. Eventually he became an in-betweeneron sceneswithOswald theLuckyRabbit.WhenWaltDisney foundhimself in afeudwithhis filmdistributor,whoowned the character’s rights, he refused to renewa lessattractivecontractandwalkedawayfromtheOswaldfilmseries.Waltwasinneedofanewcharacter, and soonMickeyMousewas born.AnimatorUb Iwerks drew the first couple ofMickeyshorts,PlaneCrazyandTheGallopin’Gaucho,andhisassistantLesClarkdidthein-betweens.ButitwasMickey’sthirdfilmSteamboatWilliethatresonatedwithaudiencesinabigway.Waltproducedthisshortwithsound,andtheenthusiasticresponsewasabigshotinthearmforthestrugglinganimationstudio.NewMickeyfilmsfollowedtogreatsuccess,butWalt alsowanted to diversify and started another series called Silly Symphonies, inwhichmusic played a vital role. The first one was The Skeleton Dance, which again was mostlyanimated by Iwerks.Clark got the chance to draw a scene inwhich one skeleton uses theribcageofanotheronelikeaxylophone.AcoupleoffrivolousskeletonsmarkedthebeginningofClark’scareerasananimator.©DisneyIntheseearlydaysofanimation,manydiscoverieswereabouttobemade,andsquashandstretchwasoneofthem.Bydistortingthecharacter’sfaceandoverallbodymass,theillusionoflifesuddenlybecamemorebelievablethaneverbefore.Itseemedthatbyshowingchangewithin the rhythm of the character, the animated performances became much moreconvincing.OnecharacterthatcametolifethroughextensiveuseofsquashandstretchwasClaraCluckintheshortOrphan’sBenefit.SheplaysaneccentricoperasingerduringatalentshowthatishostedbyMickeyMouse.Clarkanimatedher entering the stagewithaweightywalk.Herheftybodypartsmovewithoverlappingmotion,andtheeffectisentertainingandconvincing.Asshesingsheraria,Clarkagainusesdramaticdistortionsinherbodytoemphasizethehighnotes.ClarkusedstrongsquashandstretchonthecharacterofClaraCluckintheshortOrphan’sBenefit.©DisneyLes Clark had absorbed all of Iwerks’ workmethods including his way of staging gagsconvincingly.Charactersneededtobedrawninclearsilhouetteinordertocommunicatetheirhumorousantics.Therewasalsoasurrealqualitytothosegags;nothingseemedimpossible.WhenMinnie jumps out of an airplane to get away fromMickey, her panties turn into aparachuteandshelandssafely.Crudeasthismightseemtoday,animatedgagslikethisgotbiglaughsfromaudiencesatthetime.WhenIwerksleftDisneytoopenhisownanimationstudio,ClarkbecametheleadanimatorforMickeyMouse.In1935,MickeystarredinhisfirstcolorshortfilmTheBandConcert,inwhichheconductsanorchestraoutintheopen.Afterseveralinterruptions by characters like Horace Horsecollar and Donald Duck, a tornado suddenlystrikes.ButMickeykeepshiscoolandcontinuestodirecthismusicians,evenwheneverybodyisbeinglifteduphighintheairbythestorm.LesClarkanimatedalloftheimportantsceneswith Mickey, whose movements needed to be in sync with the music at all times. TheanimationisalreadysmootherthanwhatIwerkshadachievedwiththecharacterearlyon.ButDisney’s ongoing demands for improved animated performances would soon lead tobreathtakingnewheightsintheartofcharacteranimation.LesClarkaddedgreaterappealandrangetoMickey’sperformances.©DisneyAyoungartistnamedFredMoorehadbeenassistingClark’sscenes,butduringtheearly1930s came into his own as an animator.Hewas a natural, intuitive draftsman,whoneverseemed to struggle with any of his assignments. Everything he drew had appeal andpersonality.Totheenvyofmanyofhiscolleagues,WaltDisneyencouragedhisanimatorstostudy Moore’s style in order to capture some of its special charm. By 1936, Moore hadredefined the design for Disney characters, and his way of drawing influenced the entirestudio.Oneparticulardetail isworthpointingout;manyof theearlycharactersweregivenverysimpleeyes,usuallyacoupleofverticalovalshapes,paintedsolidblack.Moorecreatedrealistic eye units, in which oval white shapes were drawn with small black pupils. Thisresultedinagreaterfacialexpressiverangeaswellassubtleeyearticulation.AnimatorsArtBabbittandLesClarkmadefulluseofthisnewconceptwhentheybothanimatedAbnerthemouseforthefilmTheCountryCousin.Bothartistsalsopushed theboundariesofelasticitywhen it came to exaggerate expressions. Clark animated a series of scenes in which thecountrymouse,lookingatmountainsofhumanfood,can’thelphimselfbutstuffhismouthinthebroadestwaypossible.Abnerthecountrymousewithamouthfulofcheese.©DisneyBroadaswellasnuancedperformanceswereneededtobringthegroupofdwarfstolifeforDisney’sfirstfeaturefilmSnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfs.Clarkhadtheexperienceandthetalent to animate important acting scenes. Fred Moore’s cartoony designs of the dwarfsallowedforthekindofrich,fluidmovementsthatmostanimatorsenjoyed.Duringthefilm’syodel song,SnowWhite enjoys thedwarfs’ individualmusicalperformances,before joiningthemforadance.ClarkanimatedseveralscenesofthedwarfsplayingdifferentinstrumentsincludingSleepy,whoplaysaflute.Atonepointhepausesandgetsintoabigyawn,whensuddenlyapeskyhousefly inspects the insideofSleepy’swide-openmouth.Theunwelcomevisitor isquicklychasedawaywithbriskhand-gestures.Thesceneisjustoversixsecondslong,yeteverybitofactionreadsveryclearly.Enoughtimeisgiventoeachpartoftheperformance:theyawn,theintrudinginsect,Sleepy’srealizationofwhatishappening,andhimtakingaction.ClarkanimatedSleepyplayingafluteinSnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfs.©DisneyItcomesasnosurprisethatLesClarkgottoanimatemanysceneswithPinocchio,thetitlecharacter of Disney’s second feature. While Milt Kahl, Frank Thomas and Ollie Johnstonsupervised Pinocchio’s animation, Clark had no problems helping out wherever he wasneeded.When, toward the endof the film,Geppetto is reunitedwith thewoodenboy inside thewhale’s stomach, Clark gave some insightful performances. After a big sneeze, Pinocchio’sdonkeyearspopoutfromunderhishat,shockingnotonlyGeppetto,butFigarothecat,andCleothegoldfish.Thisisanawkwardsituation,andPinocchioisatalossforwords.Heholdshisdonkeytail,deeplyembarrassed.Thefeelingofguiltandshameisbeautifullyportrayedinthesepoignantscenes.ThisisoneofmanyClarkscenesthatgiveusstronginsightintohowthecharacterisfeelinginamomentofembarrassment.SincereemotionshelptomakePinocchiocomealivetoanaudience.©DisneyA very different type of assignment came along when Les Clark started to work onFantasia:heanimatedavarietyoffairiesforthefilm’sNutcrackerSuite.Thedevelopmentofspecificpersonalitieswasnotrequired,sincewenevergettoknowthesenaturesprites.Clarkbasedtheirelegantmovementsonhummingbirds,whichgavetheirflyingpatternsabeautifulstop-and-gofeeling.Thesedelicatefairiesweredrawnwithsizablewingsandlonglegs,whichhelpedtodefinecharmingfeminineposes.Delicatedrawingandsubtletimingaddedagracefultouchtothefairies.©DisneyClarkalsoanimatedanimportantpartofTheSorcerer’sApprentice.WhenMickeyMousecommands the broom to come to life, he does so with great intensity. While his body isstretchedinastrongforwardarch,hisfingersflutterfiercely.Thisconvulsion-likemovementheightensthescene’stensionandmakesusbelievethattherearerealmagicalpowersatplay.This is anextraordinarypieceofanimation,dramatically stagedandperfectly timed. It alsoshowsanintensityinMickey’semotionsthathadnotbeenseenbefore.Hisattitudechangesafterhesucceedsinmakingthebroomfollowhimtoafountain.ClarkanimatesMickeyherewith a confident attitude, as he hops along and leads the way. The movement is madeinterestingbytheadditionofcomplexoverlappingactioninMickey’soversizedcoat.Realisticdesignsofthefabric’sfoldsperfectlyenhancethecharacter’sbouncymotion.InTheSorcerer’sApprentice,ClarkgaveMickeyanintensitythathadnotbeenseenbefore.©DisneyWhileMickeymighthavebeenconductingtheuniverseinFantasia,inthe1942shortfilmTheSymphonyHourheisinchargeofanimpairedorchestra,whichconsistsofclassicDisneycharacterslikeDonaldDuck,GoofyandHoraceHorsecollar.Mickeyhadgonethroughafewdesignchangesduringtheearly1940s.Theinsideofhisearswerepaintedingrey,andtheyalmost moved dimensionally. In previous films his perfectly round ears just slid across hisupper head.While his torsowas drawn a bit smaller,more volumewas given to his nose,hands,andfeet.LesClarkanimatedtheopeningsceneswhenthemusicianstryveryhardtofollowMickey’slead.Asananimatoritwouldbeachallengetofindinterestingwaysfortheconductor’smovements,particularlywhenthebeatisfairlyeven,asitisinthissectionofthefilm.ButClarkvariesMickey’shandgesturesjustenoughtogivetheanimationtexture.Eachhandactionneedstoendoneortwoframesaheadoftheactualsoundinordertofeelinsyncwiththemusic.WithTheSymphonyHour,ClarkshowedagainthathewasanexpertatanimatingMickeyMouse.©DisneyMusicalsoplayedarole,whenitcametobringingalittletraintolifeduringashortsectionfromthefilmTheThreeCaballeros. JoséCariocainvitesDonaldDucktojoinhimonatrainride to the city of Baia. LesClark’s animation of the spirited locomotive is charming, as itchugs along to an energetic musical beat through a landscape that is reminiscent of achildren’sbookillustration.ThemovementsevokethealluringsimplicityfoundintheworkofClark’s formermentorUb Iwerks.All goeswell on the journey until the naughtyAracuanBirddrawsseparatingtracksontheground,whichcausesthelittletraintoloseallhiswagonsfor a few tensemoments, until they all get reunited near the train station. This train goesthrough realhumanemotions, fromhaving fun toanxietyand then relief at theendof thesequence. No arms or legs needed, not even a face. Yet Clark articulates these feelings byoffsettingthevariouslocomotivepartsinawaythatcommunicatesadefinitivestateofmind.ThetraininTheThreeCaballerosdisplaysemotions,despitehavingnolimbsorface.©DisneyDuringtheSecondWorldWar,boxofficerevenuesshrank,andthestudiohadtoputideasformoreambitiousstorytellingonhold.Disneycontinuedproducingfeature-lengthpackagefilms,which consisted of a number of shorts. Clark continued animating on film titles likeMakeMineMusicandSongoftheSouth,butitwasn’tuntilFunandFancyFreethathefoundasignatureassignment.TheMickeyandtheBeanstalksegmentfeaturedanunusualcharacter,theSingingHarp.This combinationof fairyandmusical instrumentpresented theanimatorwithlimitationsasfarasmotiongoes.Onlyherupperbodycouldmove,therestwasattachedtothewoodenharp.Clarkusedelegantarmmovements,asshepointsouttoMickeywhereWillie the Giant hid the key that is needed to free Goofy and Donald. Subtle, beautifuldrawingandgracefulanimationmadethisuniquecharactermemorable.ClarkcreatedamemorablecharacterintheSingingHarpfromMickeyandtheBeanstalk.©DisneyAnother curiousassignment camealongwith the filmMelodyTime. It featured a sectioncalledBumbleBoogie,a jazzedupversionofRimsky-Korsakov’scomposition“TheFlightofThe Bumble Bee.” This bee character flies through a “musical nightmare,” as the narratorexplainsattheshortfilm’sopening.Inhisanimation,LesClarkneededtokeepupwiththescore’shighenergyandrhythm.Appealingdesignandenergetictiminghelpedtomakethistinycharactercomealive.©DisneyThevisualsareamongthemostsurrealsceneseveranimatedatDisney.Thebee isbeingpursuedandattackedbyunfriendly flowers,musical instruments, andabstract lines.Atonepointduringthechasehedecidestofightbackandbringsthishorriddreamtoanend.Thereisn’tmuchcharacterdevelopmentinvolved,butClarkstillmakesusfeelsympathetictowardthelittlebee.Almostbeingcastagainsttype,LesClarkjoinedcolleaguesEricLarsonandMarcDavisinanimating the very realistic and beautiful Cinderella. The live-action reference, featuringactress Helene Stanley, proved to be both helpful and a curse. The footage provided theanimators with acting patterns, but how should these movements by a real woman betranslatedintosuccessfulgraphicmotiononpaper?Thereisanessence,anemotionalcorethatneeds to be found and enhanced for an animated character. Amongmany sceneswith thefilm’s title character, Clark animated her delivering an invitation from the palace to herstepmother.When the letter is being read out loud,Cinderella finds out that every eligiblemaidenistoattendtheroyalball.Shestates,“ThatmeansIcango,too.”Herstepmotherplaysalong and responds, “If you find something suitable to wear!” The following scene showsCinderellawith such relief and joy, she is alive in themost convincingway.Her emotionalstate could not have been drawn and animated any better, as she says, “Oh, thank you,stepmother,”beforeexiting.ThereisatruthandhonestyinthewayClarkhandledthescene,asifhefeltthecharacter’shopeandjoy.Clark’sanimationofCinderellaprovedthathewasperfectlyabletodealwithdifficult,realisticassignments.©DisneyHisstronganimationofCinderella led toClark’s involvementwithDisney’snext leadinglady, Alice from the film Alice in Wonderland. The technique would be similar, makingintelligentuseof live-actionreference footage inorder topresentayounggirldealingwithadversesituations.Oneofhis sequences showsAlice growingdramatically in size inside theWhiteRabbit’shouse, to a point where her arms and legs are sticking out of doors and windows. Thispresented certain staging challenges.On the onehand,Aliceneeded to lookuncomfortableandawkwardunder these circ*mstances and, on theotherhand, sheneeded to fit into thissmallhouseinabelievableway.Dramaticperspectivesonhumansarenotaneasythingtoachieve,butClark’stalentsasadraftsmanhelpedtopresentunusualupanddownshotsverysuccessfully.ClarktackledthechallengeoffittinganenormousAliceintotheWhiteRabbit’shouse.©DisneyHavingworkedwellwithMarcDavisbefore,LesClarkjoinedhiscolleagueagaintohelpanimatesceneswithTinkerBell,theemotionalfairyinthefilmPeterPan.WhileDavisdidherintroductoryscenes,ClarkdrewTinkerBellaftersheaccidentallyendsuptrappedinadrawer.WhenWendycharmsPeterPanduringconversation,Tinkknowsthatsheisnotgoingtolikethisgirl.Inaclose-upscene,weseeherliftingupathimbleveryslowlytorevealherface.Sheliterallyturnsred,fullofjealousy.EventhoughMarcDavissupervisedtheanimationofTinkerBell,LesClarkdidnotmindbeingthesecond-in-command.©DisneyAfter a string of animated female characters, Les Clark switched gears on his nextassignmentforthefilmLadyandtheTramp.WeseehisworkveryearlyoninthefilmwhenLady as a puppy refuses to be separated from her new owners at night. During severalattempts,JimDeartriestomakeLadystaydownstairsbylockingherinaroom,butshefindsnew ways to break free. A daunting staircase separates her from the humans’ bedroomupstairs. Undeterred, she goes on the daunting uphill journey, one step at a time. Clark’scharminganimationcontainsalltheclumsinessofarealpuppy.Herfeetcan’tquitekeepupwith her movements. Being so young she is still uncoordinated, and that is where theentertainmentlies.Witheachjumpupthestairsherfeetsliponceortwice,whichshowsgreatdeterminationtogettowhereshewantstobe.Eventuallyshereachestheupstairsbedroom,andfromthenonsleepsonthebednext totheDears.Clark’sfinalanimationbeforemovingintootherareasofanimatedfilmproduction.©DisneyWalt Disney chose three of his Nine Old Men to become sequence directors for hisambitiousproductionofSleepingBeauty.TheywereEricLarson,WoolieReitherman,andLesClark.Asolderdirectorswereretiring, itwas timeto fill those topspotswithartistswhoknewanimationandDisney’sphilosophyabout filmmaking.Among the sequencesClarkdirectedwastheverycomplexopeningofthefilm.BigcrowdsmaketheirmovetowardKingStefan’scastletotakepartinPrincessAurora’sbirthdaycelebration.AccordingtosceneplannerRuthieThomson, those scenes were the most difficult to coordinate, partly because of so manydifferent cel levels. Maleficent’s powerful entrance is also a part of the sequence. AfterSleeping Beauty, Eric Larson went back to animation, Woolie Reitherman stayed on asdirectorandeventuallyproducerofDisneyfeaturefilms,andLesClarkwasputinchargeofdirectingspecialprojectsliketheeducationalfilmDonaldinMathmagicLand.Hislastprojectwas overseeing the 1974 production ofMan,Monsters andMysteries, an entertaining filmabouttheLochNessMonstermyth.LesClarkwastheonlyartistfromWalt’sfirstgenerationof animators who kept up with the changes and demands at the studio throughout thedecades.HeknewearlyonthatDisneywantedbetter-lookinganimation,oftenmorerealisticdraftsmanship,andnuancedperformances.Clarktookadvantageofallthein-houseartclassesonofferinordertobetterhimself.Eveninlateryearshewouldfinishhisworkatthestudiothendrive to an evening school for courses inportrait and landscapepainting.The level ofartistrykept risingatDisney, andLesClarkmadeeveryeffort tokeepupand improvehisskills.HeistheleastknownoftheNineOldMen,buthopefullyhisbodyofworkshownherewillrectifythis.FlowersandTrees1932WOMANTREECLEAN-UPANIMATIONSc.48Whatachallengethisassignmentmusthavebeen;creatingafemalepersonalityoutofatreewouldn’tbeaneasytask.ButClark,whohadearlierdevelopedsubtlefemininequalitiesforthe character ofMinnieMouse,was perfectly cast. By bending the tree trunk according tohumananatomysuchasthehip,knees,andneck,hesucceedsinachievingelegantposesthattheaudienceidentifiesasayoungwoman.TheCountryCousin1936ABNERMOUSECLEAN-UPANIMATIONSc.14Afterthemicecousinsarriveinfrontoftheoversizedhumanbuffet,citymouseMontynibblesonasmallpieceofcheeseinafinediningmanner.BycontrastcountrymouseAbnergrabsapiece of cheese bigger than his head, and shoves it into his mouth. As he chews, his fullhamster-likecheekssquashandstretchseverelyinademonstrationofhisenormousappetite.It is astounding to seehow farClarkgoeswith expressions andvolume shifts.By showingthese bad, yet funny table manners a clear difference is established between these twocharacters.©Disney©DisneyFantasia1940THESORCERER’SAPPRENTICEMICKEYMOUSECLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.7,Sc.11Scenes like this one prove that Les Clark was one of the best Mickey Mouse animators.Mickey’s forcefulactionsshowseriousdetermination,yet there is stillanelementofhumorpresent.Herepeatedlyrollsuphislongsleevesbecausetheygetinthewayofhisgesturing.His oversized outfit is a metaphor for someone who is in over his head. Clark paid closeattention to howMickey’s hands are drawn, since they are the primary force in the scene.Theyretaintheexpressivenessofhumanhands,evenwithonefingermissing.©Disney©Disney©DisneySymphonyHour1942MICKEYMOUSECLEAN-UPANIMATIONSc.6AnotherbeautifulpieceofanimationbyLesClarkfeaturingDisney’smosticoniccharacter,asheconductsanorchestra.His extravertedgesturesareperfectly timed to themusicandarereminiscentofhisperformanceinFantasia.At onepoint during the scene themusic quiets down, andMickey leansway forward inorder to get closer to the orchestra. From a physical point of view he should actually falldown, because these poses are completely off-balance. Yet this exaggerated stagingcommunicatesthatMickey’smovementsarenotlimitedbyrealism.Asacartooncharacterhecan lower himself down toward his musicians as no live actor could. If the animation isentertainingtheaudiencewillbelieveit.©DisneyPeterPan1953WENDYCLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.14,Sc.102SinceallofWendy’ssceneswerebasedonlive-actionreference,itwasuptotheanimatortofindtheessenceintheliveperformanceandturnitintographicmotion.Wendy alongwith her brothers and the Lost Boys celebrate the fact that CaptainHookadmittedtobeingacodfish:“Hurray…Hookisacodfish,acodfish,acodfish…”In this sceneClark is animating to the rhythmof the sung linesofdialogue.But there issomethingaboutWendy’sheadtiltsthatshowsheisreallyenjoyingPeterPan’svictoryoverCaptainHookinakindofimpishway.©Disney©DisneyWolfgangReithermanWhenWaltDisneydiedinDecemberof1966,theworldwonderedwhatmighthappentohisanimated film productions without Disney’s leadership. The animators and other keypersonnelwereconcernedaswell.BecauseofWalt’sunexpectedpassing,thecompanywasill-prepared for a traumatic situation like this one.Therewere those in topmanagementwhothought the animation department should be shut down, after all the studio by then hadamassed a large number of animated classics that could still generate income throughrereleases.Animator/directorWolfgangReithermanarguedstronglyforcontinuinganimation,TheJungleBookwashalf-finished,andanewprojectcalledTheAristocatshadbeenapprovedbyDisney tomove forward.FortunatelywhenTheJungleBookwas released inOctoberof1967,it turned out to be a tremendous success and re-established Disney animation as aunique and valuable form of entertainment, loved the world over. Under Reitherman’sleadership, the studio’s group of master animators would produce a few more films untilretirementage,butnotbeforetraininganumberofyoungartiststhatwouldhelpguaranteethe future of the art form.Woolie Reitherman, as his colleagues called him, hadmade theswitchfromanimatortoco-directoronthe1959filmSleepingBeauty.AtthetimeofWalt’sdeath,heservedassingledirectoronthestudio’sanimatedfeatures.Naturallyhisrelationshipwiththeotheranimatorschanged;formerlyhehadbeenaco-worker,nowhewastheirboss.But this new arrangement worked (for the most part), becauseWoolie always insisted onteamwork,hehadenormousrespectforthetalentinthedepartmentandkeyanimatorswereincludedinimportantdecisionsregardingstoryandcharacterdevelopment.Throughout his life, Reitherman had been an enthusiastic pilot, he loved the feeling offreedomandindependenceintheco*ckpit.Asayoungmanhewasstrong-willedwithazestforlifeandasenseofadventure.AttheadviceofanartteacherheappliedtoDisneyandgothiredin1934.Themanagement at that timemusthave sensedWoolie’s freewheeling spirit right away,becausehewassparedspendinganytimeinthein-betweeningdepartmentatall.Insteadhejumped into animation right away anddrew simple scenes on short films likeFunny LittleBunnies,Two-GunMickey,andTheBandConcert.Wooliestatedlaterthathewouldnothavesurvivedthetediousassistantprogramfornewcomerstothestudio.He was ready to take this new medium of animation straight on. Other short filmassignments followed,andwhenReithermananimateda fewoutstandingpersonalitysceneswith the character of Goofy forHawaiianHoliday, his colleagues took notice. Just aboutevery possible surfingmishap is shownhere,withGoofy facing the additional challenge oftryingtosurfawavethathasapersonalityanddoesn’tlikesurfers.Timingisall-importantinanimatedsituationslikethese.Pauseswithintheactiongivetheaudiencetimetotakeinagagandhavealaugh.Woolie’sworkonHawaiianHolidaymadehiscolleaguestakenotice.©DisneyButWoolie’sfirstassignmentonananimatedfeaturefilmwouldnotgetanylaughsfromtheaudience:theMagicMirrorinSnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfsservedapurelydramaticpurpose. When being asked a question by the evil Queen, he answers her truthfully. TheMirrorisneitherfornoragainsttheQueen,hisresponsesaredeliveredinasternbutneutralmanner.After animating a hilarious situation involvingGoofy, this character’s handling needed acompletelydifferentapproach.ThetechnicalchallengeWooliefacedwastodrawthefaceinperfectsymmetry.Afterseveralfailedattempts,hecameupwiththeideatodrawonehalfoftheMirror’sface,thenfoldthepaperandtracetheotherhalf.Ittookalotofprecisiontogivetherightamountoflifetothisartdecoface.Toomuchsquashandstretchwouldhavegivenahumorous,cartoonyappearance,butnotenoughshape-changeintheeyesandmouth,andthescenes would have turned out lifeless. After all that careful work, Reitherman wasdisappointedtoseethatthefinalfilmfootageshowedhischaractermostlycoveredupbyfireandsmokeeffects.TomaketheMagicMirror’sfaceperfectlysymmetrical,Wooliedrewonehalfandthentracedtheother.©DisneyWoolie applied a real sense of perspective to Goofy’s animation. An arm motion gets close to camera and is drawnconsiderablylargertoachieveafeelingofdimensionanddepth.©DisneyBeforeworkbeganonDisney’ssecondanimatedfeature,Wooliehadagaintheopportunitytohonehisskillsasananimatorofcomedy.Inthe1939shortGoofyandWilburhisanimationis sogutsyand loose, it looks likeReitherman is shakingoffanyrestrictionshehad todealwith when animating the Magic Mirror. Goofy goes on a fishing expedition, and uses hisgrasshopperfriendWilburasbait.Atonepointhefindshimselfinastateofpanicwhenhisfriendgets swallowedbya fish.Theamazing looseness inGoofy’smovements ispartly theresultoftheanimator’suseofbaggyclothinginsecondaryaction.Sleeves,vest,andpantsallhanglimponthecharacter’sbody.Whenhemoves,thesematerialsdragandhelptheoverallflowoftheanimation.The same year saw the release of the shortDonald’s Cousin Gus. Woolie animated thecharacterGusGoose,whovisitsDonaldandbringsalongacolossalappetite.Thefilmopenswith the arrival of Gus at Donald’s home, and right away his screen presence is utterlycaptivating.Fromhisunconventional,bouncywalktothewayhecomestoastopinanoff-balancedpose,thischaracter’spantomimeperformanceisinventiveandentertaining.Woolieagaindrewcertainmovesusingexaggeratedperspective, asGusmakesa sweeping turn tofacetheentranceofDonald’shome.Firstoneofhisfeetgetsclosetocamera,followedbyhisarm holding a travel bag. Thiswhole rotation adds believability aswell as comedy to theperformance.CousinGuscomestolifethroughReitherman’suniqueideasforcomicalacting.©DisneyWoolieprovedthathehadbecomeananimatorwithgreatversatility,whenhebeganworkonMonstro, thewhale for the featurePinocchio.His talent for funnypersonalityanimationneeded to be put aside, this character was a true monster who would not only terrifyPinocchioandGeppettobutaudiencesaswell.Hewasalsotheclimaxofthefilm,andmuchexcitementandfearneededtobedevelopedinorder tocontrast theemotionsof thehappyendingthatfollowed.Monstropresentedmanydrawingandanimationchallenges.Howcanthiscreaturethathasthesquareshapeofanoversizedschoolbusbebroughttolife?Whatkindofamotionrangeshouldhehave?Wooliebrokeupthewhale’sbodyintothreemainvolumes:head,body,andtail.Duringdramaticmoves—particularlyturns—thosebodypartscouldbetwistedandoffset,resulting indynamicposesandmotion.Whendrawn from lowcameraangles,Monstrodidindeedcomeacrossasmonstrous.Thechoiceofperspectivemakesallthedifferenceinsuchasituation.Whenlookingupatacreature,itbecomesinstantlyimposingandmassivelooking.Instead,whenlookingdownontoit,thecreatureseemslessfrightening,becausetheviewerisplaced at a higher, safer level. While Monstro’s overall body shape looks fairly simple,Reithermanaddeddetailwhereverpossible.Thewhale’sfleshymouthwithitscountlessteethaswell as thedefinitionofhiswholeundersidehelped togive the illusionof scale.Stagingbecamecriticallyimportant.ReithermancapturestheenormousscaleofMonstro.©DisneyCertain scenes showed the entire body, while others were framed closer, so that othercharacterscouldfitintotheframe.Thepacingofthesequence’seditinghadtokeepbuildinguptothefinaltwoscenesinwhichMonstroleapsrightintocamerabeforecrashingintorockson theshoreline.Nootheraction/chasesequence inDisneyanimationcompares to thehighdramaofthisspectacleatsea.ScaleandsizeweremostdefinitelyamajorconsiderationinWoolie’snextassignmentforanimating the epic battle of a Tyrannosaurus Rex and a Stegosaur in Fantasia’s “Rite ofSpring” sequence. Stravinsky’smusic set the tone for this ferocious fight to the death. Theproblemwas,howdoyoubringtolifecreaturesthatareextinct?Whatkindofresearchwouldtellyouhowtheymighthavemoved?Theplacetostudyprehistoriccreatureslikethesewasthe LosAngelesNationalHistoryMuseum. Skeletons of dinosaurs gave Reitherman usefulinformation about how the ancient animals were built on the inside. How this knowledgewould translate into graphicmotion became the animator’s judgment call.Woolie realizedthataT-Rexcouldnotpossiblyhavefoughtusinghissmallarms,insteadhisenormousteethwere his main weapon. During a walk, the gigantic legs—carrying all that weight—wouldmakethegroundshudderoncontact.TheStegosaurbycontrasthadshortlegsandcouldonlytakesmallsteps,ashetriedtobackawayfromtheaggressor.Ittooktremendousanalysistoachievenatural-lookingmovementsforthismonumentalfight.Ontopofthat,theanimationneededtobeinsyncwiththeintensemusic.Onsceneslikethese,Woolieusuallystartedbyputtingintuitivescribblesonpaperthatshowedinitialcompositionsandforces.Hewouldthenrework and refine those sketches several times over, until he saw believable action thatrepresentedwhathewasaimingfor.FellowanimatorOllieJohnstononcestatedthatWooliesent out more tests to be photographed for a given scene than anybody else. Just like asculptor,hefeltthecharacter’srawformsfirst,beforeanydetailswereadded.FACINGPAGEByblockinginthedinosaurs’anatomy,Wooliegainedcontrolovertheircolossalbodymassesandperspective.©DisneyItisastonishingtowitnessReitherman’sabilitytoswitchfromverydramaticanimationlikethe“RiteofSpring”tohilariouscharacteractinglikeTheReluctantDragon.Heanimatedthedragon’sopeningscenesashemeets theboyfromthevillage.Hisperformance isover-the-top, flamboyant, and very entertaining. We know right away that this dragon is not thefighting type, he prefers writing poetry. What is so surprising is that Woolie’s superbanimation fits in seamlessly with Ward Kimball’s wacky concept for the character. Twoanimatorswithdifferent backgrounds and sensibilities come together and create one of thefunniestDisneycharacters.Reithermanalsoanimatedonanothersectionofthefilm,featuringGoofyinHowtoRideaHorse.Thiswasnaturalcastingbecauseofhisearlierexperienceswiththecharacter.Woolie’stalentsrangefromrealisticdramatooutrageouscomedy.©DisneyTherewasonetypeofpersonalityWooliehadnottriedtoanimateyet.Sweetsympatheticcharacters were usually handed to animators like Ollie Johnston, Frank Thomas, or FredMoore.Butforsomereason, importantintroductoryscenesofTimothyMouseinthefilmDumbowereassignedtoWoolie.Afterwatchingthelittlepachydermbeingrejectedbyothercircuselephants,themousedecidestoinvestigatethesituationandtriestobefriendDumbo,whoishidinginahaystack.WefindoutthatTimothyisquitethepsychiatrist,becauseafterashorttalk,duringwhichheintroduceshimselfasafriend,theelephantcomesoutofhidingtomeetthe friendlyrodent.Timothy isananthropomorphicmouse,hewearsclothes,walkson twolegs, and gestures like a human.What is interesting to see is that hemaintainsmouse-likequalities.Woolie’sanimationshowsquickmovesandappealingposesthatcommunicatewhatsortofcharacterheis:abuddy,whoisthereforyou.Hiswalkneededtobeestablishedinthisearly sectionof the film.AtonepointTimothy turnsaway fromDumbo inorder to fakeamomentarydisinterestintheelephant’sproblem.Themovementofhislittlelegshavejusttherightamountofrotationsothatanaudiencebelieves,ifamousecouldwalkontwolegs,thisiswhatitwouldlooklike.Amousethatwalkslikeahumanlookinglikeamouse.©DisneyThechasesequenceinTheLegendofSleepyHollowhaddramaticaction,interspersedwithpausesfortheaudiencetocatchtheirbreath.©DisneyAfter Dumbo was finished, Disney was no longer able to continue feature-lengthproductions.PinocchioandFantasiahadnotgeneratedprofitsduring theiroriginal releases,whileoverseasmarketswerecutoffbecauseofthewar.Thestudiomanagedtostayafloatbyturningoutpropagandaandothershortfilms.WooliecontributedbeautifulanimationtofilmslikeElGauchoGoofy,HowtoSwimandHowtoFish.But for thenext fewyearshe left thestudio to fly for theUnitedStatesAirForce.Wooliewouldnot return toDisneyuntilApril1947.ThestudiohadbegunworkontwofeaturettefilmsTheWind in theWillowsandTheLegendofSleepyHollow.The latter included a dramatic chase sequence that involved the frightening HeadlessHorsemaninpursuitofthemaincharacterIchabodCrane.Wooliewasbackinhiselementasananimatorofexcitingactionscenes.OnHalloweennight,Ichabodrideshomeafterattendingaparty.Thesoundsoftheforestbecomemoreandmoredauntingwhen,outofnowhere,theHeadlessHorsemanappearswithonlyonething inmind, tocutoff Ichabod’sheadwithhissword.Thereareoccasionalcomedicmomentsduringthesequence(Ichabod’shorseisclumsyandasfrightenedashisrider),butforthemostpartthischaseisexhilaratingandrelentless.Woolie stronglybelieved inpacinganaction sequencea certainway.He stated thatduringfast-pacedactionscenes thereneeds tobepauseswhere thingsslowdown.Thiswouldgiveviewers the chance to catch theirbreathbefore tension rises againand speed is acceleratedagain. TheHeadlessHorseman’s steed takes a big leap into the air,which slows down therunningpattern.Horseandriderthenlanddownhillandpickupthepursuit.AnotherpauseintheactionoccurswhenIchabodhangsontotheneckofhisgallopinghorse.Heissmilingandpettingthehorse’shead,becausehebelievesthedangerhaspassed.Momentslikethesehelptogivetexturetoavolatilesequence.Exciting material kept coming Woolie’s way. For the film Cinderella he animated theclimacticsceneswiththemiceGusandJaq,astheytrytodeliverakeytoCinderella,whohasbeenlockedupinherroom.Thetaskseemsoverwhelmingbecausetheyneedtopullthekeyupanextremelyhighstaircase.Tensionisincreasedbythecat,Lucifer,whointerfereswiththemissionofthebravemice.Atanygivenmomentduringthesequencethechanceofmakingitallthewaytothetopofthetowerseemsimpossible.Thefilmmakerscutbackandforthtoadifferentsituationdownstairs,wheretheGrandDukeisvisitingwiththestepsistersandLadyTremaine,whoisunawareofthemissingkey.Editing,pacing,andafeelingofanxietymakethisoneofthemostsuspensefulsequenceseverputonfilm.Woolieemphasizestheweightofthelargekey,analmostunmanageableobstacle.©DisneyLessdramaticbutmoresurrealwasReitherman’sassignmentforAliceinWonderland.HeanimatedthesequencewheretheWhiteRabbitunsuccessfullytriestopreventhishousefrombeingdestroyedbyAlice.Thegirlhasmagicallygrowntothesizeofa*giantafterenteringthecottage.Nowherhugearmsand legs squeeze throughdoorsandwindows, threatening thestructure’s foundation. The bizarre storytelling doesn’t prove very captivating, so Wooliefocusedonestablishingcontrastsbetweentheinvolvedcharacters.Aliceonlywantstoregainheractualsize,whilethenervouslizardtriestofollowordersfromthebossydodo,whotellshimtogodownthechimneytogetridofthehumanmonster.Itishardtogettoknowthosetwo characters since their appearance in the film is very brief. But the White Rabbit isentertainingand shows consistency inhis personality.During all the commotionaroundhishouse,hekeepspointingathiswatch,afraidofbeingtoolate.Weneverfindoutwhatfor.TheWhiteRabbitisinconstantfearofbeinglate.©DisneyWoolie foundmuchmore satisfaction animating scenes with Captain Hook for the nextfilm,PeterPan.His colleague FrankThomas supervised the animation of the character, butwas unable to draw every single scenewith him. It was decided that Reitherman had theperfectexperiencetohandleanactionsequencethatincludedtheencounterbetweenCaptainHook and the Crocodile. Applying broad action combined with brilliant comedy, Woolieturned this sequence into the most thrilling section of the film. Nothing seemed to be offlimits.TheCrocodileswallowstheCaptainwhole,beforehere-emergesintact.Duringatensemoment,Hooktriestopreventbeingeatenbystandingattheedgeofthecreature’smouth,holdingitopenwithallhismight.Thosescenesraisedafeweyebrowsatthestudio;afterall,suchcartoonysituationshadpreviouslybeenreservedforacharacterlikeGoofy.Wooliedidnotcare;hehadtoomuchfunmakingtheimpossiblecomeoffasbelievable.Audiencesturnedout to be on his side; they bought the bizarre animation, because itwas entertaining.AndwhatkeptitfromlookinglikeaGoofyshortwasthefactthatWooliealwaysdrewHookwithaccurate human anatomy. This broad sequence actually added to the range of Hook’spersonality. He is definitely a menace to Peter Pan, but in this instance he almost getsconsumedbyanoversizedcrocodile.Evenvillainsliveinfear.Reithermansaid:“Nobodyisgoingtoworryaboutagag’slogic,ifit’sfunny.”©DisneyBroad action, but in a solelydramaticwaywas required for twomajor sequences in themovieLadyandtheTramp.Woolie’sanimationbroughtthrillingexcitementtobothsectionsof the film.AfterLadyrunsawayfromAuntSarah, she isbeingchasedbyapackofstreetdogs.Whentheycornerher,Trampcomestotherescueandfightsthemoff.Thefactthatheisoutnumberedmakes foran intense situation.Before the fightbegins,Trampstares thedogsdown, as he growls in a frozen position. The actual combat doesn’t last very long and ispartially staged as shadows. A few fierce close ups of dogs biting add to the feeling ofheightenedemotion.Afterthedogsflee,Tramp,outofbreath,turnshisattentiontoLadywhohadbeenhidingbehindabarrel.Duringthisfightsequence,realisticdrawingwasrequiredtomaketheactionbelievable.©DisneyRealdramaasTrampfightstherat.©DisneyWoolie’sotheractionsequencetakesplaceat theendof thefilm,whenTrampenters thehouse to confront a rat that has approached the baby’s cradle. Woolie timed this fight asdramaticallyashecould.Ratanddogfaceeachother,movingeversoslightly,theninaflashtheirmovements become fast and jerky… and suddenly they freeze again. Tramp ends theconfrontation with one quick bite. By nowWoolie had become a truemaster at dramaticaction,arolethatwouldcontinueintothenextfilm.Asmentioned,ReithermanbecameasequencedirectoronSleepingBeauty.Hisdaysasananimatorwereover.NowWooliewouldhavegreatercontrolovercertainsectionsofthefilmby working closely with story people and layout artists to get the maximum out of asequence. One of them dealt with the epic confrontation between Prince Phillip and theDragon.Hesupervisedalloftheanimationthatwasdoneforthisdramaticencounter.“Nowshallyoudealwithme,myprince,andallthepowersofhell”areMaleficent’sfinalwordsasshetransformsherselfintoaterrifyingdragon.ItwasimportantforWooliethattheaudiencebelievedthebeastisgoingtokilltheprince.Afterafewfire-breathingthreats,thepursuitbeginsandsteadilyintensifies.Phillipisfightingashebacksawaythroughthorns,upahill,untilthereisnowheretogo.Justwhenitlooksliketheendfortheprince,hethrowshisswordintothedragon’sheart.FireeffectsanimationandtheintensemusicalscorebasedonTchaikovskyhelp to keep the audienceon the edgeof their seats throughout the sequence.Unfortunatelythefilmlostmoneyinitsinitialrelease,itseemsaudiencescouldnotwarmuptoafilmthisstylized.EricCleworthanimatedmanyscenesforthefightunderWoolie’sdirection.©DisneyThe following film,One Hundred and One Dalmatians (1961) represented a significantchange in Disney storytelling. After the monumental production of the fairy tale SleepingBeauty,Dalmatianswas set in contemporaryLondon.Nopixie dust ormagic anywhere insight, this story was about the kidnapping of puppies. Reitherman was one of three codirectors,who translatedBillPeet’s storyboard into the firstDisney filmof themodernera.Gonewerethelush,realisticallypaintedbackgrounds,makingroomforafresh,cutting-edgevisual style. One of the sequencesWoolie directedwas the utterly charming twilight bark.Desperatetoletthewordoutabouttheirpuppies’disappearance,PongoandPerditausethiscaninegossip line to reachotherdogs inacall forhelp.OneHundredandOneDalmatianswas made for a fraction of Sleeping Beauty’s cost, the film was enormously successfulworldwide,andprovedthatDisneyanimatedfilmscouldbeprofitableagain.Starting with The Sword in the Stone, Woolie served as solo director. Walt Disney hadgottentoapointwherehetrustedWoolie’sjudgmentandexperience.SinceWalthadgotteninvolvedwithmany other types of entertainment (theme parks, TV) that tookmuch of histime,itwasimportanttohimthatanartistwithnaturalleadershipskillstookonhisanimatedproductions.TheSwordintheStoneprovedfairlyunsuccessfulwithcriticsaswellasaudiences,butTheJungleBookbrokestudioboxofficerecords.ThetoneofthestoriesbeingtoldinDisneyfilmsbythenwasmuchmilderthaninWalt’searlierachievements.Wooliewantedtomakefilmsfor families, and he became increasingly concerned about scaring children with terrifyingvillains.Hestatedaroundthattime:“Ifwelosethekids,we’velosteverything.”Perhapsraisinghisownchildrenmadehimchangehisphilosophyforstorytelling.Whatkindofanimatedfilmswouldhewanthisthreesonstosee?FilmsthatfollowedlikeTheAristocats,RobinHood,andThe Rescuers all had comedic villains and rich character relationships. All of them weresuccessfulandlaidthefoundationforanewgenerationofanimationartiststoputtheirmarkontheart form.WoolieReithermanwasnotonlyoneof theworld’s topanimators,healsomadesurethatDisneyanimationwouldcontinueonintothenewcentury.Donald’sCousinGus1939GUSCLEAN-UPANIMATIONOVERROUGHANIMATIONSc.4OneofDisney’sgreatestcharacters inshortfilmsisGus,acousinofDonald,whoshowsupoutof thebluewithahugeappetite.Wooliesetsupthisodd,but fun-lovingcharacterrightfromthestartashearrivesinfrontofDonald’shouse.Themailboxconfirmsthatheisintherightplace,andit’stimetoapproachthefrontdoorbehindhim.Gusanticipateshislittlestrollbyliftingonefootwayuphighbeforeswingingittowardthecamera,thenawayfromit.Ashisupperbody turns around, thehandholdinghis travel bagdoes the same foreshorteningmotion.Woolie’sanimationdrawingsmovewithinreal space.Thestronguseofsquashandstretchduringhiswalkawayfromtheviewerturnsthissceneintoacomicalmasterpiece.©Disney©DisneyPinocchio1940MONSTROCLEAN-UPOVERROUGHANIMATIONSeq.10.9,Sc.8Monstro isacceleratinghispursuitof the little raftholdingPinocchio,Geppetto,Figaro,andCleo.Hemakesahugeturnupwardtowardthesurfacebyalmostbrushingthecamera.Oneaftertheother,eachmainbodypartapproachestheviewer,firsttheheadwithitsopenmouth,followedbythemiddleframeandthetail.Woolieeffectivelyanimatedthismovefromaloweye-level,whichincreasesthedramaandemotionofthescene.©DisneyFantasia1940“RITEOFSPRING”TYRANNOSAURUSREXCLEAN-UPOVERROUGHANIMATIONSeq.8.6,Sc.43Duringthe“RiteofSpring”section,ahorrificTyrannosaurusRexisabouttolurchtowardaStegosaur.Woolie has the prehistoricmonster lean back in anticipation of his leap into thecamera. It is important to give a heavy creature like this one plenty of time to changedirections,otherwisetheanimationwouldlackweight.InthiscasetheT-Rexhoversabouttenframes at his highpoint, before rapidly approaching the camera.There is nobetterway tofrightenanaudiencethantomakeitfeelthatagiantbeastiscomingdownonthem.©DisneySaludosAmigos1943ELGAUCHOGOOFYGOOFYANDHORSECLEAN-UPOVERROUGHANIMATIONSc.37In full gaucho outfit, Goofy is riding his horse in pursuit of an ostrich.He seems to be anexperthunter;withinsecondshecatchesthebird.Whenthefilmrewindstothestartof thehunt,thesceneisshownagain,butinextremeslowmotion.AtthisslowspeedtheaudienceissupposedtobecomeawareofGoofy’sprofessionalandimpressivetechnique.WhatwewatchinsteadisaseriesofhilariousmishapsasGoofybouncesupanddownthehorseincartoonyfashionbeforemakingapainfullandingonhisownspurs.Woolieexaggeratedeverypieceofactionasmuchashecould,andappliedsquashandstretchmoreseverely thanhenormallywould, because he knew that it would look funny. These highly detailed key drawingsrequired a humongous amount of in-betweens in order to present the action this slowly.Wooliemusthaveworkedwiththestudio’smostpatientassistant.©Disney©DisneyTheAdventuresofIchabodandMr.Toad1949ICHABODANDKATRINACLEAN-UPANIMATIONSeq.7,Sc.21IchabodisdoinghisbesttoimpressKatrinaVanTasselattheparty.Woolie’sfunnyanimationofthecoupleshowsthemholdingrelativelystill,whileIchabod’sganglylegskeepkickingupoutofnowhere.Hiscrazyfootworkbecomesthecenterofcomedyforthescene.Itisn’tuntilmomentslaterthatthecharacterschangeintoamoreconventionaldancingpattern.AsgoodasWooliewashandlingdramaticmaterial,hiscomedyscenesrankamongthebesteverdoneatthestudio.©Disney©DisneyEricLarson“WaltDisneynevertalkeddowntoanaudience,insteadhealwaystriedtobringyouuptohis level.” Thosewords by animatorEric Larsonwere directed at youngnewcomers to thestudio during the early 1980s, people like Mark Henn and Ruben Aquino, as well as thisauthor.ErictriedtomakeitcleartousthattopqualityworkwaskeytoanyDisneyanimatedproduction.Hetalkedabouthavinghighstandardsinyourworkasagoodruletolivebyandagoodwaytoexpressyourselfasananimator.InsomanywaysEricwasmuchmorethanananimation teacher; he represented the Disney philosophy of bringing things to life in abelievable,genuineway.Therewerecertainlyusefultoolsofthetradethatwereabigpartofhiscurriculum,butnomatterhowfrustratedweoccasionallybecamewithourearlyattemptsto animate—poor timing and the lack ofweight showed our inexperience—a talkwithEricalwaysleftuswithafeelingthatthisisthegreatestartformintheworld.Weallknewwhataprivilege it was to be a part of a group of artists that was encouraged to continue thetraditionsofDisneyanimationundertheguidanceofoneofthemedium’smasters.ThisquotefromoneofEric’slecturesexemplifieshisaffectionforanimatedfilmmaking:Animation is a formof communication, and thereforewhenyou’re animatingyou aremakingastatement:astatementaboutthecharacter,thestory,thefeelingsandemotions,actions, personalities, archetypes, etc. If youwant the audience to get involved in thestory,connectwiththecharacter,andfeeltheemotionsneededtosympathizeandrelatetothatcharacteryoumustmakeapositivestatement.Tomakeapositivestatementyouhavetoknowyourcharactersandtheirpersonality,haveadevotiontoyourcraft,knowhow to use your art to express the statement you want to make, apply feelings andemotionsthatarestrongandrealtoafantasystory,andmostofallhavesincerity.Ifyoudon’thavefeelingsandemotionsforyourcharacter,howcanitevenbepossiblefortheaudienceto?YoungEricLarsonoriginallypursuedwritingwiththehopesofbecomingajournalist.Buthealso enjoyeddrawing, andwhen in the early 1930swordgot around thatWaltDisneywashiringartistsEricappliedandwashiredasan in-betweener.Hedidassistantworkonshortfilms likeTwo-GunMickey,Mickey’s Service Station, and the groundbreakingThe TortoiseandtheHare,whichfeaturedinnovativeactionscenesbyanimatorHamLuske.AtonepointtheHareplaystenniswithhimself,speedingbackandforthonthetenniscourt.Eric Larsonwas verymuch impressed by the wayHam Luske timed his actions. For very fastmotions speed lines weredrawntosimulateamotionblur. Itmighthavebeenslightlyoverdone,but thisexperimentsucceeded increating fastbutsmooth-lookinganimation.©DisneyLuskehadtoworkhardtomakehisdrawingslookgood,andtomakethemperforminawaythat feltbelievableandgenuinetohim.Ericwasnotanaturaldraughtsmaneitherandoften struggled to catchupwith animators likeMiltKahl orMarcDavis,whoseworkwasalwaysbeautifullydrawnandshoweda flair forstrongdesign.But toEric thestrugglewasworththeefforttogetaperformanceonthescreen.Anditwascertainlynotbeneathhimtoasksuperiordraftsmenatthestudioforhelpinordertomakehissceneslookbetter.ThiskindofteamworkwasverymuchencouragedbyWaltDisneyhimself,whoknewthathisartistscouldlearnfromeachother,particularlywhenthestudiostartedworkontheirfirstfeature-lengthproductionSnowWhiteandtheSevenDwarfs.ItwasatthattimethatEricgothisbigbreak.AtthesuggestionofHamLuske,Ericwaspromotedtofull-fledgedanimator.HejoinedMilt Kahl in animating large groups of forest animalswho interactedwith SnowWhite inmanyscenes.Thiswasahugelylabor-intensiveassignment.Tosynchronizethemovementsofseveral deer, chipmunks, and bunnies has more to do with choreographing a ballet thananimatingyouraveragescene.RealanimalmotionneededtobestudiedsothattheanimationwouldlooknaturalenoughnexttotherealisticcharacterofSnowWhite.Ericwashappywithmostof theresults;however,he felt that thedeer—with their flour-sackbodies—couldhavebenefittedfromadoseofstronganatomy.Synchronizingsomanywoodlandcreatureswasmorelikechoreographingaballetthananimatingascene.©DisneyRoosterandheninthemiddleofaromanticduet.©DisneyBefore getting involved inDisney’s second animated feature, Eric continuedworking oncharming,cartoonyanimalcharactersforshortfilmslikeFarmyardSymphonyandTheUglyDuckling.TheDisneystyleofthelate1930sand1940shadasoft,cuddlyquality,andEricfeltverycomfortablewiththisrelativelysimpleapproachtodrawingandconstructinganimatedcharacters.TheUglyDucklingisborn.©DisneyWhile these farmanimalsweredesigned inasimplewayto tellashortstory,Eric’snextcharacterneededtohaveamuchmoredevelopedpersonality,afterallhebecameoneofthemaincharactersinthefilmPinocchio.Figaro’searlydesignswereacaricatureofanadultcat,but Ericmuch preferred to portray thismischievous, but lovable character as a kitten. Hisfelinemovesfeelsobelievablebecausetheyarebasedonrealcatmotionandthencaricaturedin themost lovingway. Figaro’s human attributes and expressions have roots in a formerLarsonfamilymember,Eric’sfour-year-oldnephew.Kidsthatageshowtypicalcharacteristicsofmisbehaviorandmoodswingsbutalsoaffectionfortheirparents,andFigaro’spersonalityfitsalloftheseattributes.Thenthereisaclassicbrother–sisterrelationshipbetweenhimandthe goldfish, Cleo. That kind of character pairing offers rich and contrasting situations thathelptobringtheseyoungsterstolife.Ericproducedsomebeautifulpantomimeanimationinan early section of the film. Geppetto and Figaro have just settled for the night into theirrespectivebeds,when theoldwoodcarverdecides tomakeawish.GeppettoasksFigaro toopenthewindowsohecanaskthewishingstarforPinocchiotobecomearealboy.Ericsawgreatpotential in thewayFigarocouldreact in thissituation.Hefirst looksuptoGeppettowithanupset“Nowwhat?”expression,thentosseshisblanketwitheachfootatatimebeforetumblingoutofbedinthedirectionofthewindow.HehopsontoGeppetto’sbedandcrossesoverasoftbedcover.Figaro’sbodyreactsbeautifullytoeachsurfacehecomesincontactwith.Strongsquashdrawingisusedwhenhefirsttumblesoutofhisbedandhitsthehardwoodenfloor. By contrast his legs sink deeply into Geppetto’s bedcover, which communicates theweightofthecataswellashowcushytheblanketis.Allthisaddsatonofcharmtothislittlecharacter,who*ricobviouslyadoredanimating.FigarocrossingasoftbedcoverinthefilmPinocchio.©DisneyAverydifferenttypeofanimationwasrequiredforEric’sotherassignmentonPinocchio.WaltaskedhimtotakeoverthemarionettesthatdancedonStromboli’sstageandinteractedwith Pinocchio. These characterswere not supposed to look alive, since their actionsweremanipulatedbyoffstagehumans.Ericknewthat inordertomaketheaudiencebelievethatthesepuppetsweremadeoutofwood,adifferentapproachto theiranimationwasneeded.Absolutelynosquashandstretchwasappliedwhentheirbodiesh*tthefloorormadecontactwitheachother.Woodisaveryhardmaterial,anddistortingtheirvolumeswouldhavemadethem look like living characters. Eric synchronized the animation perfectly to the musicalbeatsof thesong“I’veGotNoStrings,”and theresult isanutterlyconvincingperformancewithmarionettes.Auniqueapproachwasrequiredtomakeaudiencesbelievethemarionettesweremadeoutofwood.©DisneyFigaro’sactionsshowedrealfelinemotionwhilethestagepuppetsactedwithnoinnerlivesatall.EricLarson’snextassignmentforDisney’sFantasiacalledforafantasticalandimaginedtype of movement, since the characters were centaurs. They appeared in theBeethoven/“Pastoral” sequence. This classic combination of horse and man presented achallengeintermsofbodyrhythm.Howwouldthehumanupperbodyreacttothemotionsofthe lowerhorseanatomyandviceversa?AnimatorFredMoorehaddesigned these fantasycreatures in a simple, roundish, and cartoony way. So drawing them didn’t present majordifficulties,butmakingthemmoveturnedouttobetherealchallenge.Thatimportantunifiedbodyrhythmwasneverestablishedinmotion,andtheendresultslookstiff.Years later Eric talked to us students about the fact that he still felt embarrassed by hisanimationofthosecentaurs.“ThegirlslookOKforthemostpart,”hesaid,“butthemennevercometolifeproperly.”EricLarsonquestionedthequalityofthecentaurs’designaswellashisanimation.©DisneyErichadmoresuccesswiththeflyinghorsesinthe“Pastoral”sectionofFantasia.©DisneyEric redeemedhimself,however,whenhealsoanimatedseveral sceneswithmembersofthe Pegasus family in the samePastoral section of Fantasia. The gracefulmovements of aflyinghorseneededtobeinventedaswell,butEricfoundthiscombinationofbirdandhorseamuchmorepleasantassignment thanthecentaurs.There isgreatelegance in thewaythesehugecreatures land softly in thewaterbefore theirwingsare turnedbackward to simulatefloatingswans.Afteranimatingmythologicalflyinganimals,Ericturnedtoa“real”birdforthefilmBambi.HedevelopedanddrewFriendOwl,acharacterhemuchidentifiedwith.Intentionalornot,Eric’sowngentlepersonalitygreatlyinfluencedthisowl’scharacter,whooftenshowsfatherlyaffectiontowardstheotherforestanimals.Thatis,untilspringseasonarrivesandthecalmoftheforestisinterruptedbynoisybirdsandother“twitterpated”animals.Hisattempttoquieteverybody downwith a loudwarning is unsuccessful, and he flies off in search of amorepeacefulpartofthewoods.Whatfollowsisanunexpected,butveryentertainingperformancethatmocksthebirds’courtshipbehavior:“Tweet,tweet!PaininthepinfeathersIcallit.”WefindoutthatFriendOwlhasasomewhatzanysenseofhumor.Larson’sowngentlecharacterandsenseofhumorarereflectedinthepersonalityofFriendOwl.©DisneyThe character was voiced by actor Bill Wright who sounds like everybody’s favoritegrandfather.Andthatisexactlywho*ricLarsonbecameinhislateryears,akindandpatientmentorwithanedgysenseofhumor.After Bambi and for the rest of the 1940s The Walt Disney Studios focused on theproductionofshortfilms.EricanimatedonseveralfilmswithGoofysuchasTigerTroubleandAfricanDiary.ThestaroftheshortTheFlyingGauchitowasBurrito,adonkeywithwings,andEricagainended up drawing a Pegasus-like creature. Frank Thomas supervised the character’sanimation, andEricwas a natural choice to help out because of his experiencewith flyinghorsesforFantasia.Ericresearchedarangeoffacialexpressionsaswellassimplifiedhorseandpartialbirdanatomy.©DisneyBynowErichadbecomesomewhatofanexpertinanimatingbirds.WhenworkbeganontheshortfilmPeterandtheWolf,hewascastonPeter’seccentricl*ttlebirdfriendSasha.Thischaracter’semotionswerealwaysstrongandextreme.WhenhefirstseesPeter,Sashaisveryhappy,andwhenheencounterstheWolf,heisveryfrightened.Hismovementsareextremelyfastandsnappy.Ericwouldholdaposeforabouttenframes,justenoughtoregister,beforequickly moving on to another pose. This kind of timing gave Sasha a nervous, energeticquality.Healsocomesacrossasenthusiasticandadventure-loving.Afterall,hisfriendPetersurelywon’tbeabletotrackdowntheWolfbyhimself.Erictoldhisstudentslaterthatatleasteightframesoffilmareneededforanyposetoreadonthescreen.Anythinglessthanthatwouldmaketheposedisappearinaction.Asmallcharacterwithbigemotions.©DisneySnappytimingwasagainneededforthemaincharactersinthefilmSongoftheSouth.Ericsawa lot of potential indeveloping richpersonalities basedon thevoice recordings,whichsuggested a strong contrast between the slow bear, the fast fox, and the smart rabbit. Ericanimated a scene inwhichBrerRabbit is caught in the fox’s trap. This is a very awkwardposition, and any acting is restricted to head turns and small hand gestures. But Eric stillmanagedtoportraytherabbitwiththeconfidencethathecouldtalkBrer
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Perguntas dessa disciplina

The right comprehension of the text above requires an intertextual knowledge that addresses to what book? Escolha uma opção: a. A nineteenth Cen...

UNINTA

The ordinal form for the number ninety, underlined in the text, is A Ninth.B Nineth.C Ninetieth.D Ninetieth.
QUESTÃO 7 a.( ) “An old man turned ninety-eight”, o article (artigo) pode ser trocado por “a” sem que ocorra erro gramatical na frase.b.( )...
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